Category Archives: Social ecology

Writings from the past

I was just looking for a resource I wrote many years ago and came across this. It is the preface I wrote to a book by a British ecosocialist friend of mine, Derek Wall, called “Babylon and Beyond”. I thought I’d post it here in the off-chance someone found it interesting


Human beings face the greatest challenge in the history of our species. We face the destruction of the life support systems on which our very existence depends, and we face it because of our own activity.

There are some who deny or diminish that threat. They mostly either retreat into fairy tale thinking – that technology, or the “free” market, or UFO’s will save us – or hope that by closing their eyes they can it go away.

Yet the evidence is mounting almost daily that the threats are very real and are gathering momentum. A new report from the UK is saying that if we don’t turn carbon emissions around in the next decade, we will not be able to stop runaway climate change whatever we do.

Authoritative voices are warning us that we are very close to the point where world demand for oil will outstrip the capacity of the oilfields to supply. Our total dependence on fossil fuels, the use of which has provided the energy for an enormous expansion of human activity and population, is like a chemical addiction. And as the USA has recently confirmed in Iraq, strip a junkie of their supply and the temptation to turn to crime can be irresistable.

“The American way of life” says George Bush the First “is not negotiable”.

A time of crisis, however, is also the time of greatest opportunity. More and more people are waking up to the need to change, to change at a fundamental level, and to change right now. People are waking up to the fact that the institutions of society that so many have put their trust in are failing us. Government won’t do it. Big business can’t do it.

Because the challenge we are facing is about more than changing a few policies or practises. It requires a fundamental rethink of what it means to be a human being. Government and business can become allies, but the power to make real change lies in the hearts and the lives of ordinary people.

It is already happening. The international people’s movement against genetically engineered (GE) plants and animals has demonstrated how the reckless agenda of multinational corporations, aided and abetted by our own governments, can be stopped in its tracks and rolled back. One conglomerate has been outed bribing government regulatory officials in Indonesia, GE companies are pulling out of the EU and Australia, and GE agriculture firms are facing massive stock market losses. The promised gold rush is proving to be a fantasy, largely because of global consumer resistence.

While the campaign has significant support in the scientific community, for many ordinary people it began as a sense that something just didn’t feel right. That feeling is often quickly backed up by investigation, but the sense of something being fundamentally arrogant and wrong about GE is the key – it is our humanness talking to us.

What is it to be human? Western society, at least, defines us as individuals whose value can be judged by what job we have, what colour credit card, what kind of car we drive and the label on our clothes.

Yet beneath these displays of status, real people are emotional, social and spiritual beings – intrinsic characteristics that cannot be considered in isolation from each other. We seem to have forgotten that our relationships – with one another and all the other beings with whom we share this beautiful planet – are fundamental to who we are.

There is a passage in the Bible that says “where there is no vision, the people perish”.

The inability to step back and clearly see and understand the “big picture” is the central problem that we face in the world today. The main motivations for Western industrial society for the past few hundred years – belief in unlimited growth and technology as the solution to all problems – are the very things that are killing us.

We cannot grow forever on a finite planet. If we continue to assume that endless growth and consumption is possible, and disregard the biosphere’s capacity to meet our greed, and if we continue to neglect social justice and fair and sustainable wealth distribution, we will reap a bitter harvest.

Neither will technology on its own fix the problem. Yes, we need better technology, more efficient technology that uses non-polluting cyclical processes and that does not depend on fossil fuels. But just more technology will not do, because the problem is in us and the way we see ourselves in the world.

We humans think that we can own the planet, as if fleas could own a dog. Our concepts of property ownership are vastly different from traditional practises of recognising use rights over various resources. A right to grow or gather food or other resources in a particular place is about meeting needs. Property ownership is about the ability to live on one side of the world and speculate on resources on the other, possibly without ever seeing it, without regard to need or consequence.

The ability to “own” property is fundamental to capitalism. Since the first limited liability companies – the Dutch and British East India Companies – were formed, we have seen the kidnapping and enslavement of 20 – 60 million African people and the rape, murder and exploitation of indigenous people around the world. Colonisation was primarily about mercantile empires, not political ones. It was all about forcing indigenous, communitarian people to accept private individual ownership of resources, which could then be alienated, either by being bought or stolen. The subsequent political colonisation was just about how to enforce that ownership.

Today property rights are being extended through GATT and TRIPS agreements and through institutions such as the WTO and the World Bank. Private property rights are being imposed over public assets such as water, intellectual property and, through genetic engineering and biopiracy, on DNA sequences. Even traditional healing plants are under threat. In Aotearoa – New Zealand we have had multinationals attempting to patent piko piko and other native plants. This is all part of the “free” trade corporate globalisation agenda – to create tradeable rights over our common wealth, accumulate ownership and then sell back to us what is already ours.

This is only possible because we have lost our place in the scheme of things. We think of the environment as something “over there”, as something separate from human activity, something to either be exploited or protected. The reality is that we are as much part of the environment and the planet as the trees, insects and birds.

It is time to relearn what it means to be human.

Babylon and Beyond, the economics of anti-capatalist, anti-globalist and radical green movements by Derek Wall. Printed by Pluto Press

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National Council for Permaculture in New Zealand report

Last weekend the national council for Permaculture in New Zealand (PINZ) got together in Hamilton. We meet up a few weekends a year to do the stuff that we can’t really do on skype and it is a great opportunity to put in some serious hours together. This is my second year as chair of the council and I am really proud of what a great team we have. Many of us have been working together for a few years, and this year we also got two new members who bring exciting new skills and energy to the group.

We have made a lot of progress and a big part of that has been a result of our focus on strategic planning. The strategic plan itself is coming along well, but it is the process itself that is so important. Working through the key priorities of the organisation, with members input, means that we are able to effectively apply our energy and resources for the greatest impact. This means better supporting some of our current initiatives, such as the annual hui and the website, and developing some new ones, such as developing a media plan.

The strategic plan helps to be clear what the essential functions of the hui and the website are and so to make the best use of them. Since the website is one of the most important public faces of permaculture, making sure that the look and feel is right is important. PINZ is currently considering a logo change and that will be the basis to redesign the website, newsletter and all of our literature. This is all part of preparing to engage much more proactively with media, political decision-makers, allied movements, and the general public.

In line with that, council has made a decision to take up the invitation of the Australians to host the Australasian Permaculture Convergence (APC) in 2019. The last APC in Aotearoa was in 2012 and it was a hit. We will be looking at how we can use the opportunity to showcase permaculture to the nation. We are also looking at the possibility to extending it to make it a Pasifik Permaculture Convergence. There are a number of links that individual NZ and Australian permaculturalists have made over the years with Pasifikan permaculturalists so it seems like a good opportunity to strengthen those links.

To this end, we are initiating a number of scholarships. Last year we helped raise around $1000 through crowdfunding to support a permaculturalist from South America to attend the International Permaculture Convergence (IPC) in Cuba. We would have preferred to support someone from the Pasifik but none applied to the UK permaculturalists who organised it. For next year we want to specifically invite applications to PINZ from across the Pasifik (including Aotearoa). The intention is to create a crowdfunded scholarship to attend the IPC in the UK. If it is successful we would also like to create a crowdfunded scholarship for a Pasifikan permaculturalist to attend the annual hui in Aotearoa.

This is all part of a strategic approach to building links into different communities. Alongside this we are also keep to build on and support initiatives aimed at taking permaculture more into the business world. One of the intentions of the 2019 convergence is to create media opportunities to talk about permaculture with the public and to provide an event that can demonstrate the relevance of permaculture for the challenges we face in the world today.

There is a lot of work involved in developing these ideas and bringing them into reality, but it is an exciting prospect. The permaculture community has so much to offer Aotearoa and the world and the PINZ council is feeling inspired about being part of the next step in getting permaculture out there and into people’s understanding.
(adapted from

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Reflections on Resilience

Some reflections following a permaculture workshop on Empowerment and Resilience that I run alongside Finn Mackesy from Auckland Permaculture Workshop (APW).

Resilience has become the new buzzword. Where a few years ago everyone was talking about sustainability, now they are all talking about resilience. The problem is that many of them don’t seem to know the difference.

I was recently at the Environmental Defence Society annual conference where the theme was resilience. It was a great conference with many excellent speakers, but at least one corporate functionary was talking about how his company is increasing its resilience by implementing more efficient production methods. Actually, resilience is more likely to be a function of increased redundancy in the system than increased efficiency. The best systems find the right balance between efficiency and strategic redundancy.

Even more concerning is that people use the word ‘resilience’ when they actually mean ‘robustness’. There is a great TED talk by a guy in the US who goes around looking at why houses fail in storms. It’s very interesting, and shows startling evidence that most roof, and therefore house, failures come from very small details – two instead of three nails in the hurricane strapping, or using the standard one and a half inch instead of two inch nails to hold the trusses on. He talks about building resilience by making the house stronger, but what he is actually doing is building a more robust house.

This may seem like pedantry of the highest order, but if people are trying to develop strategies to build resilience, in own lives or in their communities and businesses, then they need to understand what that means. Very often, strategies to build more robustness will run counter to strategies to build resilience. It is important to find the right balance so that systems are robust but also have the capacity for resilience. This can only be achieved if you are clear about what you are trying to achieve.

Robustness comes from the Latin word for ‘oak tree’, and that is a very good illustration of its meaning. A robust system is strong, able to withstand stress and pressure, able to shake off the storms that might break a lesser tree.

Resilience comes form the Latin word for ‘spring back’. Grass is the classic example – the wind can never break grass because it just gives way and then returns when the pressure is gone. Resilience is the ability of a system to bend, or regenerate itself when things break.

Ecosystems often go through phases of great robustness, such as a climax forest characterised by high levels of specialisation, complex interconnections, lots of embodied energy, followed by release, such as from a forest fire. The breaking up of that embodied energy and recycling it back into the system allows a range of species to make us of it, to build and reorganise, and sets the scene for a new phase of growth, with increasing levels of complexity and specialisation until the climax stage is reached again. This is called the cycle of adaptive change and is an ever changing and dynamic balance.

cycle of adaptive change

Strategies of sustainability often seem to be locked into trying to maintain the climax stage. Hence, a focus on increased efficiency and more specialisation. The sole focus is building more robustness into the system. There is nothing wrong with robustness, but if it is the sole focus it leaves no room for resilience when the system sooner or later inevitably fails. The global economy that is built on fossil carbon is like that. Design systems like permaculture are more about how to find the right balance between robustness and a capacity for resilience.

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Traditional Hawai’ian Terraquaculture

For many visitors to Hawai’i the native people are almost invisible behind the caricature of plastic leis and aloha shirts. Yet Hawai’ian culture and identity is alive and well, observable most strongly in the resurgence of Pasifik voyaging and the powerful hula traditions. The traces of their sophisticated and complex ancient culture are apparent throughout the landscape, in the heiau (temples) that dominate many headlands and hilltops, in the traditional placenames that evoke their polynesian past and less obviously in the taro terraces now hidden by neglect.

It is fairly well known among the general population of Hawai’i that the traditional land division was based around the ahupua’a. Most guidebooks describe this as a long strip of land that stretches from the mountaintop to the sea, and comment that it gave the people of that ahupua’a access to all the resources they needed for self sufficiency. What these descriptions miss, and what becomes apparent when you look at a map of them, is that ahupua’a are based on water catchments. The ahupua’a was actually a system of integrated water catchment management.

I was told that traditionally a kind of committee of resource experts would decide collectively how best to manage the resources within the ahupua’a. Preservation of waterways was a paramount consideration and it was a principle that a person at the bottom of the catchment had a right to the same quantity and quality of water as one at the top. The lifeforces in the waterways were personified as mo’o, reptilian / humanoid guardians of water, and honoured.

The same no longer applies today. At Ka’ala Farm they showed me where traditionally 5 watercourses had snaked across the valley. Today only two run, intermittently. The streams had been diverted and exploited for the sugar cane plantations, and then for the town supply. As a result the water lens was badly depleted.

Visiting Ka’ala Farm ( a revelation for me. A community learning centre and a place of healing and celebration, the farm had revived a section of the taro terraces put there hundreds of years before by their ancestors. The valley held hundreds of acres of such terraces they told me, but they only had the labour power to maintain a small section of them. Nevertheless they were abundant with wet grown taro, fresh-water fish farms, dry taro, banana, kumara (in association with various tree crops), kukui (candlenut), koa wood and a host of other crops.

Traditionally the local Hawai’ians would also have farmed salt-water fish (the remains of traditional fish farms and stone-work fish traps are still found all over Hawai’i). They also fished from wa’a (waka), guided by the observations of sea, fish movements, weather and astronomy that their kahuna (tohunga) made from the heiau strategically placed on various headlands.

I was told that traditionally the Hawai’ians had planted tree crops on the ridges to catch mist and cloud and bring water down into the valley. Mountain apples and other fruits were strategically planted into specific microclimates on the slopes where they would thrive. The wetlands at the bottom of the valley (now drained) were traditionally protected as sources of abundance, and expanded via stone terracing up the slopes.

What was particularly interesting for me was that I had just attended a talk by Kama Burwell at the PiNZ hui at Tapu Te Ranga Marae where she had described very similar systems of terraquaculture practised by the Chinese, except growing rice in their terraces instead of taro. Both of these traditions show a very sophisticated understanding of holistic resource management, far beyond most modern farming practises. It definitely made me want to make a far more careful examination of traditional Maori resource management than I have so far.

The fact is that food security is a very significant issue in Hawai’i. Around 85% – 90% of their food is imported and food is expensive. It was a major highlight of my visit to Hawai’i to see these ancient systems of resource management, broken by the illegal annexation of Hawai’i by the USA, being brought back to life. Even better than the surfing and snorkelling was seeing the taro terraces and fish ponds in use and feeding the community.

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Visiting La’akea Permaculture Community, Hawai’i Island

I’d forgotten to ask for directions when I arranged to visit La’akea Permaculture Community so I had to stop for help in Pahoa. I stumbled upon The Locavore Store, which was full of great local fresh produce as well as sauces, balms, oils and things, and I swapped stories about food and politics with the friendly people tending the store. They offered me the use of their phone to ring the community.

Unfortunately I couldn’t understand a word the guy on the other end of the phone was saying. A lot of unfamiliar words plus some kind of American accent I’m not used to. I stopped asking him to repeat himself after the third attempt and decided to make do with the vague impressions I’d jotted down. Go past Pahoa then something about looking out for a couple of signs on the road. I half got the first one (Lelania Station?), no idea what the second one was. It was enough, anyway, to find the place after just one missed turn.

Tracy Matfin met us at the main house with a huge bowl of popcorn and a warm hug. An engaging and knowledgeable woman, Tracy explained to us how the community had come about and some of its ebbs and flows. It had started as the project of a wealthy individual who had purchased the land, had a permaculture design made for it and funded the first stages of its implementation. This had included trucking in large amounts of soil (since the land is basically broken lava for the most part), planting trees and establishing some infrastructure. The process had not left much time to “observe and interact” and some elements of the design had to be rearranged over time, such as the siting of water storage to allow it to be gravity fed to irrigated plots.

The land became available for sale at the right time to allow the original 7 community members to purchase it. That number has changed over time, with people coming, leaving and some people changing to living there seasonally. Now the community consists of 11 adults and 2 children, aged 6. The children have been attending a local Waldorf school but the intention is to develop some kind of home schooling.

The biggest focus for the community has been social permaculture. “It’s no good having a whole load of people who know how to plant trees if they argue all the time” says Tracy, emphasising the importance of Compassionate Communication (or Non Violent Communication) as part of the social toolkit. There is only one kitchen in the community so people learn to deal with things promptly instead of allowing them to fester. After all, you can’t hide away when you are having a problem with other people – sooner or later you have to emerge for dinner.

Despite having broken her leg roller skating, Tracy took us on a tour of part of the property. It was amazing to be in a tropical food forest and see papaya, huge lilikoi (passionfruit), cacao, coffee beans, vanilla beans, jackfruit, cardomom and a whole heap of tree crops (including greens) that I had never even heard of. There were also tropical sheep that looked like goats and some Australorp chickens. The high rain fall on the Puna side of the island meant the vegetation was thick and lush, although the same could be said for some of the invasives such as cane grass.

The property is financially self sustaining but the challenge now is for the members to be able to sustain themselves financially from the property as well. Most of what they eat is food they have grown but the community ebbs and flows around the question of how private they want to be – since the community is their home – compared to the income potential from running educational courses and events. This is a question that is regularly revisited as the membership changes.

From what Tracy said there is little coordination between permaculturalists in Hawai’i, to the extent that PDCs in different places can clash with each other, to everyone’s detriment. There is a desire to create some coordination and people to take this on may be starting to emerge. There is also an attempt being made on the mainland to create a US-wide permaculture organisation that will cover teacher accreditation among other things, but there is resistance among local teachers. The process is seen by some as being expensive, onerous and with no real value. Small and slow seems to be key here. The USA is such a big country that finding a way to organise without creating a distant, and bioregionally irrelevant, central bureaucracy will be a challenge.

Like in Aotearoa, an issue for the permaculture movement in Hawai’i is how it engages with the kanaka maoli, the indigenous people. There is a huge interest among native Hawai’ians in food sovereignty but access to land is the issue. Hawai’i is being sold to overseas developers at inflated prices while the indigenous people can rarely afford to buy land in their own ancestral islands.

Actually it didn’t make much sense to me for Hawai’i to be seen as part of a US based organisation. Hawai’i is a Pasifikan nation and while it may be under US occupation, it belongs firmly in the family of Oceanic islands. Creating stronger links between permaculturalists throughout the Pasifik Ocean seems a useful goal and already permaculturalist from Hawai’i have travelled in Aotearoa, while New Zealanders have come here – including time spent at La’akea by the ubiquitous and magnificent Robina McCurdy.



A tree green for the pot Tree greens[/caption]
P1070301 Cardomon [/caption]
P1070303 Cacao [/caption]
P1070307 Vanilla [/caption]
Tracy Matfin Tracy Matfin [/caption]

I was left with the thought that one day I would love to see a Pan-Pasifik Convergence. Visiting La’akea showed me that we have so much in common and so much that is unique to each island group. Sharing our stories and learning from each other can only be good for us all.

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Healing, reconnecting and protecting Papatuanuku

OPENING ADDRESS TO THE 2014 Permaculture in NZ HUI

A couple of weeks ago I was in Tuai. Tuai is a small village by Lake Waikaremoana – in my opinion one of the most spectacular places in the world. Waikaremoana – the sea of rippling waters – is a huge lake, 54 km2 at the top of the mountains in Te Urewera National Park. It is a place of extraordinary geology in one of the few remaining areas of unlogged native forest and it is the largest National Park in Te Ika a Maui at over 2000 km2. To swim in those cystal waters and to breathe that pure forest air is rejuvinating and healing.

So it was a completely appropriate place to hold an international healers hui at one of the marae there. Waimako hosted close to 200 healers from all over the world, including people from Japan, Britain, across Europe and people from the Hopi, Apache and Mohawk nations of Turtle Island.

And thinking about it, it also seems somewhat ironic that having been at a healers hui to talk about permaculture (along with Sam Halberg, Mel, Poihaere Morris and others) I am now in Wellington at a permaculture hui talking about healing.

Not strange though. There are many way in which permaculture is about healing. In fact the proverb that drove Sam Halberg and James Waiwai to develop a permaculture garden in Tuai to help feed the hui was “let food be your medicine and let your medicine be your food”. It is that same understanding which is leading to the local kura developing a permaculture design for its grounds, integrating that design into the school curriculum to support subjects such as maths, art, science, business skills, and forming an association with the Koanga Institute and joining up as members of PiNZ.

At this stage I have to mihi to two people – Dr Rangimarie Rose Pere, a world reknown tohunga from Tuai and James Waiwai, who was one of the core organisers of that hui and is the driving force behind the development of permaculture at the kura. He is also here with us for the weekend.

Participating in that healers hui was a powerful experience. It took a while to process all the mental, emotional and spiritual clearing that took place there but when I reflect on those four days there are some core messages that stick out for me.

The first is that we are entering a new age. It doesn’t take a genius to realise that we are going through a major transformation in the world, on many different levels, but sometimes it can be easy to forget that we are not just witnessing the end of one age but the beginning of the next. It is a time to mourn, but also a time of celebration, a time of excitement.

We know that the dominant economic system is under enormous strain from its own internal contradictions. The ideology that treats measures of economic growth as a proxy for human wellbeing has always been a flawed approach. Simon Kuznets, the economist who developed the measure, warned in his first report to the US Congress in 1934 against its use as a measure of welfare. In 1964 he said that “Distinctions must be kept in mind between quantity and quality of growth, between costs and returns, and between the short and long run. Goals for more growth should specify more growth of what and for what”.

But GDP is still a primary measure of performance by Governments and this obsession with economic growth is a major driver of ecological breakdown. While some people have said that growth is good and it’s just a question of what kind of growth, the reality is that economic growth goes hand in hand with resource depletion and pollution. I have yet to hear a credible explanation of how that can be avoided.

But it goes further than that. We know that economic growth doesn’t measure material wealth, just economic activity – how many dollars change hands. But we also know that material wealth has limited effect on human wellbeing in any case. It is true that people who are poor would be happier with more money – up to a certain level. Studies suggest that happiness does increase with material wealth up to the level reached by the average westerner in the 1970’s. After that, more money does not mean more happiness. And if we think about it, we know what the kinds of things are that lead to more happiness once our basic material needs are met: the opportunity to express creativity, to feel a sense of belonging, to be able to spend time with family and friends, to be part of something bigger than the self. And as the bible puts it – to plant fruit trees and enjoy the fruit from them.

Hence the need for a huge marketing industry devoted to convincing us that we haven’t actually met our basic material needs yet. “You may THINK you have everything you need, but wait until you see THIS!” There’s always one more kitchen appliance, lounge suite or power tool to buy before consumer bliss is finally reached.

If we look at it, the economic system has actually conditioned our social organisation, our family structures, our land tenure systems, our education philosophies, our spiritual frameworks and even our sense of self. Imagine what kinds of new ways of being will become possible as we reinvent our economies so that they become a means to collective human happiness rather than an end in themselves.

Isn’t this is a large part of what healing is all about? To free ourselves of these lies about who we are in the world? To heal this deep sense of dissatisfaction, created and nurtured in us every time we watch a TV, drive past a billboard or read a magazine? To silence that critical inner voice that saps energy and time and obstructs us from doing what we know we need to do. To awaken to our real nature as creative and powerful beings able to make a new reality and change the course of history? Isn’t this what makes healing, as opposed to medicine, a subversive act?

The tohunga Rangimarie Pere says that we are entering Te Wai Ahuruhuru – the age of cherishing waters. At the healers hui she spoke of the need to heal ourselves of any sense of inadequacy or lack of confidence and learn to celebrate the beautiful and powerful cosmic beings that we are.

Like Koro Bruce Stewart here at Tapu Te Ranga marae. Here is a man who started with nothing except a vision. A man who built this astonishing marae from pure determination. But he didn’t just wish it into existence, he turned his vision into reality using the rejects of the society around him – its ‘waste’ materials and its ‘waste’ people, the ones thrown on its scrap heap. You couldn’t get a better demonstration of the permaculture principle of using what’s available in your environment.

This marae also is an example of healing.The personal journey of healing for Koro Bruce is written in the walls and floors of this whare. There is also the healing of the community and the local ecology through the plantings, gardens and hosting of so many community organisations that have come through this place over many years.

It is in these acts of healing that will bring in our new world, whether they be acts of dismantling disfunctional and no longer useful ways of being and doing, or acts of creation and redesign. More likely it will be both together, in transforming and repurposing social and material resources in new ways to meet the needs of the our unknown and exciting future. Because the end of one age and the beginning of another is a time when anything becomes possible – when the adage to “creatively use and respond to change” becomes instinctive.

At last years hui, in Taranaki, I spoke about Edward Goldsmith’s book “The Way”. Goldsmith is one of the great ecological thinkers and the book is an attempt to outline the fundamentals of the science of ecology, before it falls prey to the same reductionist fallacies as so many other disciplines. He describes the characteristics of healthy natural systems and rejects the idea that nature is random. If we observe natural systems in action, he says, we can see that they are purposeful. Evolution is not just random mutations but the expression of an innate drive for more complexity, more diversity, more abundance. Life seeks self expression.

Goldsmith introduces an important new term in the book. He says that healthy natural systems are homeotelic – from the Greek ‘homeo’ the same and ‘tellus’ the goal. All the parts in the system have the same goal – to maintain and enhance the integrity of the system of which they are a part. So the normal behaviour of a cell serves to maintain the integrity of the organ of which it is a part, and the organ helps to maintain the integrity of the individual cells. The normal behaviour of the organ, say a heart, maintains the integrity of the body and vice versa. The body, say a Tiger, serves to help maintain the integrity of the jungle of which it is a part, and the jungle serves to maintain the integrity of the region and ultimately the planetary whole.

Natural human culture, which he calls, vernacular culture, is also homeotelic. Industrial culture, however, has become heterotellic – where the normal behaviour of individual people undermines the integrity of the local systems and ultimately of the planetary whole. That is why we feel like we are fighting against the flow when we try to live a life that is in harmony with natural processes, and why it is cheaper and easier to pollute, waste resources and harm the people and other species around us.

If this transformation that we are going through is to mean anything at all, it must be a transformation back to a homeotellic culture. We have to redesign our human systems so that our default behaviour upholds rather than undermines the integrity of the natural systems that we are part of. We need to create human systems that mimic natural ecosystems, and of course that is what permaculture gives us the tools to do. Not just in land management but in redesigning business ecologies, industrial ecologies, social ecologies, political systems.

As an aside, who drove down here from Auckland? Don’t be shy, this is not a name and shame, I’m sure everyone car pooled.

Which reminds me: you know how to double the efficiency of the average vehicle on the roads? Stick someone in the passenger seat.

Driving down the motorway you would have seen one of the Government’s major economic strategies: biggering the motorways and bypassing all the small towns. This is a classic example of monoculture thinking. It’s like clear felling all the local businesses, all the little coffee shops and bakeries, art galleries and second hand shops by removing their customer base and replacing them with BP service stations, McDonalds and an Autobahn every 100kms.

That pretty much sums up the economic direction of this government . Build roads, lease mining rights and privatise any remaining profitable SOEs. The permaculture alternative uses ecological design principles to promote a business ecology that demonstrates diversity, complexity, edge effect, use of guilds and horizontal layering, all that stuff we practise every day in our gardens as well.

That is why I consider permaculture to be so important. That is why I consider PiNZ to be so important. That is why we have to protect the integrity of permaculture itself, so that the transformative potential doesn’t get lost as the concept is translated into the language of different communities. It would be a tragedy if permaculture became just another kind of organic gardening in people’s minds.

This weekend there will be quite a lot of discussion about the direction of permaculture in NZ. We really need to have those discussions. And just as we need to heal as individuals to unlock our potential, we also need to heal ourselves as an organisation. PiNZ went through some hard times a few years ago but I think it is important to let go of any self doubt that comes from that, to celebrate the new energy coming through the organisation and work together to reach our full potential as an organisation and as a movement.

Of course in healing, we become capable of reconnecting, and reconnecting is also healing in its own right.

One kind of reconnection I want to emphasise is the reconnection between permaculture and indigenous knowledge. Bill Mollison in his ‘Permaculture Designers Manual’ makes numerous explicit references to the way that permaculture has drawn on indigenous knowledge, but this is not true of much permaculture literature. Permaculture is all about localised and site specific knowledge and the mana whenua in any one place will hold important knowledge that should not be ignored. As an example, if the old people didn’t use to have gardens on that ridge over there, they probably had a good reason, as someone I know recently found out when the autumn winds started blowing.

As an organisation we have huge potential for development in this area. There is a lot of space for us, as a movement, to connect permaculture with Maori philosophies and to reflect that many of the things we are saying are grounded in indigenous knowledges. To honour that knowledge we need to be explicit about that, and also to look at how we reciprocate. Let me add also that I mean indigenous in its broadest sense. As Dr. Rangimarie Pere says, it is important to honour all of our whakapapa strands and to acknowledge that all people ultimately spring from an indigenous culture.

In making these connections and reconnections, we become more capable of defending and protecting our Mother Earth.

At this stage I want to take a moment to reflect on what a blessing it is for us to be gathering here in the whare Ukaipo, a place that honours the mother and the feminine energy. Restoring that balance between the male and female is a critical part of the work we need to do in this time.

But what can we really do to defend ecosystems? Isn’t it all too late anyway?

I get asked that a lot. I reply that I don’t think it is too late. But even if it was, what difference would that make? We are human beings. We are part of this planet, part of the complex web of life that makes up the planet. It is in our very nature to fight to protect Papatuanuku. We are the forest defending itself. We have no choice.

And that very fact demonstrates that we can succeed. As I see it, more and more people are feeling that urge inside them and are starting to speak up against what is going on. There are very powerful vested interests who want things to stay just as they are, but more and more people are recognising that we have to change. The biggest problem, in my view, is that most people don’t know what to change to. Until they can see the alternative, an alternative that makes sense to them, they will continue to go along with things even while feeling, and sounding, uneasy.

We have to articulate the alternative more clearly and more loudly. There are so many permaculturalists out there, doing really extraordinary things, sometimes under the name of permaculture and sometimes not. That doesn’t matter. What does matter is that we link up, reconnect OURSELVES so that we can amplify our voice.

And not just to the outside world. We need to inspire each other, learn from each other, share our triumphs and our challenges. That is what our website is for – any member of PiNZ is automatically signed up as a website member. Get on there, write a blog piece about what you have been up to or about any interesting developments in your area. Read the website and leave comments. Just as with PiNZ itself, the website is for you as members to use as a tool for learning and sharing. Please use it.

I want to finally end by thanking the Wellington team for organising this hui. It’s going to be an extraordinary weekend and I’m really looking forward to it.